From Kansas Policy Institute.
Kansas Policy Institute presents the 2014-15 student weighted funding formula
By David Dorsey
The updated version of the formula that will be used by the Kansas State Department of Education to determine student weighting in the coming school year is presented below. This complex formula is the basis to adjust (increase) the number of “students” in a school district for state funding purposes.
Dissecting this complicated formula reveals those factors the state recognizes that require additional money.
- Up to 13 different factors decide what the “real” student count will be for a particular district*.
- Seven factors (at-risk, vocational ed, bilingual ed, high-density at-risk, new facilities, high enrollment, and virtual students weighting) are calculated using percentages of student enrollment.
- Four factors apply to all 286 districts. They include:
- at-risk students (those who qualify for free lunch)
- low or high student enrollment
- special education weighting
- The others vary in applicability from the vocational education weighting (267 districts in 2013-14) to declining enrollment weighting (2 districts in 2013-14).
Once all applicable factors are determined, the total weighted number of students is multiplied by the Base State Aid Per Pupil (BSAPP — $3,838 in 2013-14 and $3,852 in 2014-15) to calculate that part of the amount of state aid a district receives.
These weightings are no small affair. For example, in the Elkhart School District (USD218) last year, the weighting factors increased the student count from 502.6 (actual enrollment) to 1,668. 2, a 231.9% increase. In dollar terms, that increased Elkhart’s BSAPP funding by $4,473,573 from $1,928,979 to $6,402,552. That’s an effective BSAPP of $12,739! And that’s not an isolated case. Nearly half of Kansas’s 286 school districts realized at least a doubling of the effective BSAPP due to weighting.
People in the education establishment are quick to lament that BSAPP is down from the pre-recession figure of $4,400 in 2008-09 to the current $3,852 for the 2015 fiscal year. However, you never hear them speak of the all the weightings that significantly add to the dollars actually received. In fact, when all students statewide are included, the real BSAPP for 2013-14 was $6,640. In a recent Lawrence Journal-World article it was reported that Lawrence Superintendent Rick Doll said the district is still suffering from cuts in base state aid. According to Doll, “We are operating basically at about 1999 school funding levels.” That’s not even close to being accurate. According to KSDE, state funding per pupil in 1999 was $4,533. That figure rose to an estimated $7,052 per pupil for last school year. Local support has more than doubled since ’99 (from $2,238 to $4,809 per pupil). Likewise for federal support.
It is important to understand what a difference in the level of funding the weighting of students adds. Last school year, the weightings provided $1.3 billion over and above BSAPP to the state’s 286 districts. But some Kansas politicians, particularly those more interested in protecting institutions than serving children, and the education establishment don’t like to talk about that part of state aid to education. Instead, they like to focus only on the BSAPP figure. That’s why we hear statements made like Superintendent Doll’s.
If I were still a math teacher and they were my students, their homework assignment would be learn and understand this formula. And yes, it would be on the test.
*There is one change in the formula from the 2013-14 school year. The low-proficient, non-at-risk factor was removed during the 2014 legislative session.
The Kansas Constitution has got to be changed because the word “adequate” is too loose and open the door to anyone’s interpretation. Especially when the supreme court’s interpretation may be different from the legislature’s. I say rewrite it to say that whatever the state’s revenews are for that year, the schools budget for the following year shall not excide 55% of that amount and shall not be less than 54% of that amount. This would simplify the total budget issue and adequate would be replaced with the previous years economic environment. Than schools would have a motivation to increase the states revenews through more business activity. Along with this, it would have to say that the majority of funds would come from sales tax. School funding has to correlate with the states economy year to year. Some years are good and some are bad, but education has to be educated on how important business climate is to their welfare.